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Wildlife & Environmental Solutions

Diseases From Wildlife & Effects

.

Direct

Disease type

Disease Vector

Animal

Symptoms

Rabies

Virus

Animal bite,

Striped skunk, raccoon,

Paralysis, convulsions,

(rhabdovirus)

aerosol

foxes, bats, and other

coma, death

mammals

Hantavirus

Virus

Aerosol,

Deer mice, other

Fever, headache, muscle

(hantavirus)

animal bite

wild and commensal

aches, nausea, vomiting,

rodents

back pain, respiratory

syndrome

Leptospirosis

Bacteria

Urine contamination,

Commensal and wild

Fever; jaundice; neuro

(Leptospira spp.;

ingestion

rodents, rabbits, fox,

logic; pain in abdomen,

icterohemorrhagiae)

skunk, raccoon,

joints, or muscles;

opossum, deer

nausea; may be fatal

Brucellosis

Bacteria

Contamination,

Hoofed animals

Intermittent fever, chills,

(Brucella spp.;

ingestion

(coyote)

headache, body aches,

abortus)

(milk, etc.)

weakness, weight loss

Rat-bite fever

Bacteria

Rodent bite

Commensal rodents

Abrupt onset with chills

(Streptobacillus

and fever, headache,

moniliformis)

muscle ache, followed

by rash on legs and

arms, arthritis

Salmonellosis

Bacteria

Ingestion of bacteria

Rodents, swine, cattle,

Sudden onset of head

(Salmonella spp.)

in food contaminated

wild birds, poultry,

ache, fever, abdominal

with feces

pet turtles

pain, nausea, diarrhea,

vomiting

Ornithosis

Chlamydia

Inhalation of

Parrot and sparrow-

Fever, chills, headache,

(Psittacosis)

(Chlamydia

contaminated air

like birds, pigeons,

muscle pain, loss of

psittaci)

waterfowl, domestic

appetite, sweating,

birds

pneumonia

Histoplasmosis

Fungus

Inhalation of

None, grows in soil

Mild fever and

(Histoplasma

spores

enriched by feces

influenza-like illness,

capsulatum)

under bird and bat

pneumonia, hepatitis,

roosts

endocarditis, death

Cryptococcosis

Fungus

Inhalation

None, grows in

Meningitis; lung, liver,

(Cryptococcus

is suspected

droppings in

and bone infection; skin

neoformans)

pigeon nests

lesions or ulcers

Trichinosis

Nematode worm

Ingestion of uncooked

Swine, bear, wild and

Nonspecific gastroenter

(Trichinella spiralis)

meat containing larval

domestic carnivores,

itis, loss of appetite,

cysts

wild and domestic

nausea, diarrhea, swollen

rodents

eyelids, fever, chills,

muscle aches

Ascarid

Nematode

Ingestion of nematode

Raccoon

Larval stage invades and

roundworm

(Baylisascaris

eggs (raccoon feces

damages body organs,

procyonis)

contamination)

including brain

Direct and Indirect

Plague

Bacteria

Contamination from

Wild rodents (prairie

Fever, headache, severe

(Yersinia pestis)

skinning animals,

dogs, ground and tree

discomfort, shaking

fleas

squirrels, chipmunks),

chills, pain in groin or

rabbits, carnivores

arm pits (swollen lymph

nodes), death

Disease

Parasite

Method of

Wildlife

Type of Human

(Agent)

Transmission

Hosts

Illness

Direct and Indirect

Tularemia

Bacteria

Contamination from

Wild rodents, rabbits,

Mild illness to severe

(Francisella

skinning animals,

hares, carnivores,

meningitis, pneumonia,

tularensis)

ticks, biting insects

birds, hoofed animals

ulcer at inoculation site,

swollen lymph nodes,

death

Indirect

Tick-borne

.6

Colorado tick fever

Virus (coltivirus)

Tick, Dermacentor

Wild rodents (sciurids,

High fever, headache,

andersoni, D.

porcupine), hares,

muscle ache, lethargy,

occidentalis

rabbits, marmots,

biphasic symptoms

carnivores

Rocky Mountain

Rickettsia

Tick, D. andersoni,

Wild rodents, rabbits,

Rapid onset, fever, head-

spotted fever

(Rickettsia rickettsii)

D. variabilis,

hares, carnivores,

ache, muscle aches,

Amblyomma

birds

nausea, vomiting,

americanum,

abdominal pain, rash,

Haemaphysalis

loss of muscle control,

leporispalustris

possibly fatal

Ehrlichiosis

Rickettsia

Tick, species

Unknown, possibly

Fever, headache, nausea,

(Ehrlichia

unknown

dogs and other

vomiting, muscle aches,

chaffeensis)

carnivores

fleeting rash

Lyme disease

Bacteria

Tick, Ixodes scapularis,

Wild rodents

Skin lesion (EM), fever,

(Borrelia

I. pacificus, A.

(Peromyscus, chip-

headache, fatigue,

burgdorferi)

americanum

munks), raccoon, deer,

muscle ache, stiff neck,

rabbits, birds

cardiac and neurologic

manifestations, arthritis

Relapsing

Bacteria

Tick, Ornithodoros

Wild rodents (chip-

Rapid onset, severe

fever

(Borrelia hermsii, B.

hermsi, O. parkeri,

munks, tree squirrels),

headache, muscle weak

parkeri, B. turicatae)

O. turicata

particularly in cabins

ness, rigor, joint pain,

and caves

recurring fever

Babesiosis

Protozoa

Tick, I. scapularis

Wild rodents (white-

Gradual onset, loss of

(Babesia microti)

footed mice, meadow

appetite, fever, sweating,

vole)

fatigue, general muscle

aches, prolonged

anemia, sometimes fatal

Tularemia (listed above)

Mosquito-borne

St. Louis

Virus

Mosquito, Culex pipiens

Birds (mostly song-

Fever, headache,

encephalitis

(flavivirus)

complex, Cx. tarsalis,

birds and waterbirds),

musculoskeletal aches,

Cx. nigripalpus

some rodents

malaise, low fatality

Eastern equine

Virus

Mosquito, Culiseta

Birds (mostly song-

Fever, intense headache,

encephalitis

(alphavirus)

melanura, Aedes spp.

birds and waterbirds), bats

nausea, vomiting,

muscle, aches, confusion,

coma, high fatality


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